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YVO4 Laser Crystal

YVO4 (Yttrium orthovanadate ) crystal is an excellent birefringence optical crystal, it has wide transparency range and large birefringence rate difference in the visible and near-infrared wide band range. These excellent properties make large size YVO4 Laser crystal quickly become a new type of birefringence optical material, which has been widely used in the photovoltaic industry.

Nd: YVO4 (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Vanadate) have large stimulated radiation cross sections at laser wavelengths, high absorption coefficients at pumping wavelengths, high laser-induced damage threshold, and excellent mechanical, physical and optical properties. Now Nd: Yvo4 lasers have been widely used in machinery, material processing, spectroscopy, wafer inspection, display, medical testing, laser printing, data storage, and other fields. Honour Optics can provide wholesale YVO4 laser crystal.

Features of YVO4 crystal

High purity YVO4 laser crystal has good mechanical and physical properties and is an ideal component of optical polarization components due to its wide transparency range and high birefringence rate. YVO4 is a positive uniaxial crystal that grows under the Czochralski method. It has outstanding high-temperature stability, physical properties, and mechanical properties. In many applications, including fiber isolators, loops, interlacing, harnesses, and other polarized light devices, it is an excellent synthetic alternative to calcite and rutile crystals.

Features of Nd: YVO4 crystal

High absorption over a wide pumping wavelength bandwidth, almost as high as about five times larger absorption efficient over a wide pumping bandwidth around 808 nm compared with Nd: YAG crystal; Larger stimulated emission cross-section almost as large as four times at the lasing wavelength of 1064nm. Lower lasing threshold and higher slope efficiency; As a uniaxial crystal with a large birefringence, the emission is only a linearly polarized.

Basic Properties

Atomic Density 1.26x1020 atoms/cm3 (Nd doping:1.0%)
Crystal Structure Tetragonal, space group I41/amd
a=b=7.1193, c=6.2892
Density 4.22g/cm3
Melting Temperature 1825 of
Mohs Hardness 4-5
Specific Heat @25oC  24.6 (cal/mol/K)
Thermal Expansion Coefficients (@300K) αa=4.43x10-6/K
Thermal Conductivity Coefficients(@300K) //C: 5.23W/m/K
⊥C: 5.10W/m/K

Optical Properties

Lasing Wavelength 1064.3nm, 1342nm
Thermo-optical Coefficient (@300K) dno/dT=8.5x10-6/K
Sellmeier Equations for Pure YVO4crystals ( λ  in µm) no2=3.77834+0.069736/(λ2-0.04724)-0.0108133λ2
Refractive Index (@1064nm) no=1.958, ne=2.168
Stimulated Emission
Cross- section
25x10-19cm2 @1064nm
Fluorescent Lifetime 95 µs
Peak absorption wavelength 808 nm
Absorption Coefficient (1% Nd) 22.8cm-1 (E//c), 11.1cm-1 (E//a) @ 808nm
Intrinsic Loss 0.02cm-1 @ 1064nm
Gain Bandwidth 0.96nm @ 1064nm
Polarized Laser Emission Parallel to the optic axis (c-axis)

Laser Properties of Nd: YVO4

Large absorption coefficient, this is the most attractive character of Nd: YVO4 crystal. It has 5 times larger absorption coefficient in a broader absorption bandwidth around the 808 nm peak pump wavelength compared with Nd: YAG crystal, which just matches the current standard of high power laser diodes. This means even a smaller Nd: YVO4 crystal could be used to build a more compact laser system.

For a given output power, this also means a lower power level at which the laser diode operates, thus extending the lifetime of the expensive laser diode. The broader absorption bandwidth of high-quality YVO4 laser crystal which may reach 2 to 6 times that of Nd: YAG. Besides more efficient pumping, Nd: YVO4 also means a broader range of selection of diode specifications. This will be helpful to laser system makers for wider tolerance and lower cost choice.

Large stimulated emission, this is another attractive character of Nd: YVO4 crystal. It has larger stimulated emission cross-sections at both 1064nm and 1342nm. When a-axis cut Nd: YVO4 crystal lasing at 1064nm, it is about 4 times higher than Nd: YAG crystal, and almost about 18 times higher than Nd: YAG at 1340nm, which leads to a CW operation completely outperforming Nd: YAG at 1320nm. These make Nd: YVO4 laser is easy to maintain a strong single line emission at the two wavelengths.

Large birefringence is also an important character of Nd: YVO4 crystal, because it is a uniaxial rather than a high symmetry of cubic as Nd: YAG, what it emits is only a linearly polarized, thus avoiding undesired birefringent effects on the frequency conversion. Although the lifetime of Nd: YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd: YAG, its slope efficiency can be still quite high for a proper design of laser cavity, because of its high pump quantum efficiency.

Laser Properties of Nd: YVO4 in comparison with Nd: YAG

σ (stimulated emission cross-sections), α (Absorption Coefficient), τ (Fluorescent lifetime), La (Absorption Length), Pth (threshold Power) and ηs (Pump Quantum Efficiency).

Laser crystal Doping
Nd: YVO4
Nd: YVO4
1.1 7 9.2 90 231 45.5
Nd:YAG 0.85 6 7.1 230 115 38.6

Diode-pumped Nd: YVO4 laser output compared with that of an Nd: YAG laser

Crystals Size (mm3) Pump Power Output (@ 1064nm)
Nd:YVO4 3x3x1 850mW 350mW
Nd:YVO4 3x3x5 15W 6W
Nd:YAG 3x3x2 850mW 34mW


Doping concentration from 0.15 to 3.0mol%
Diameter from 2mm to 30mm, length from 0.02mm to 30mm
Orientation Tolerance: 5 arc minutes
Dopant Concentration Tolerance-----------------------0.1%
Parallelism -------------------------------------------------<10 arc seconds
Perpendicularity ------------------------------------------<5 arc minutes
Chamfer----------------------------------------------------0.1mm @45°
Clear Aperture---------------------------------------------95%
Surface Quality--------------------------------------------10/5 or better
Surface Flatness-------------------------------------------L/10 or better
Wavefront Distortion--------------------------------------λ/10@633nm

Large size YVO4 Laser crystal is widely used in the field of optical fiber communication and is the key materials in applications such as optical isolators, circulators, interleavers, beam displacers, and polarizer.

High purity YVO4 laser crystal has become popular host crystal for diode pumping among the current commercial laser crystals because of its high gain, low threshold and high absorption coefficients at pumping wavelengths, which result from the excellent fit of the neodymium dopant in the crystal lattice. This is mainly for high precision YVO4 laser crystals absorption and emission feature surpassing Nd: YAG Pumped by laser diodes. Nd: YVO4 crystal has been incorporated with high NLO coefficient crystals (LBO, BBO or KTP) to frequency-shift the output from the near infrared to green, blue, or even UV.

Honour could provide you with YVO4 crystals which can also be dopped with Nd. As one effective and inexpensive solid gain medium, it is widely used in laser pen, handheld device, and other small solid laser equipment.

Honour Optics offer standard Nd: YVO4 within 4 weeks:

Doping Dimension Coating
2% 3x3x1mm HR/AR Coating
2% 3x3x1mm AR/AR Coating
1% 3x3x1mm HR/AR Coating
1% 3x3x5mm AR/AR Coating
0.50% 3x3x10mm AR/AR Coating
0.27% 4x4x8mm AR/AR Coating

The professional high precision YVO4 laser crystal manufacturer, sell high-quality YVO4 laser crystal, welcome to consult wholesale YVO4 laser crystal optimal price.