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Sapphire Optics

Sapphire is a kind of material ideal for vacuum chambers, submarine, and other harsh environment applications. Honour Optics provides sapphire series products like a window, prism, tube, rod, lens, and sapphire micro-optics according to customer’s specifications. Honour Optics is the professional efficient optical grade special shape sapphire optics manufacturer, wholesale large size optical grade sapphire optics, welcome to consult purchase high purity optical grade sapphire optics optimal price.

Custom optical grade sapphire optics is used for in 250-5000nm wavelength range. It is recognized as a highly important optical material because optical grade sapphire combines high transmission with outstanding mechanical-strength properties at high temperatures. Sapphire optics can be made thinner or any special shapes than alternative crystals or glasses thanks to its structural integrity and can operate up to 2030⁰C.

As the hardest of all oxide crystals, Sapphire has a combination of optical and physical properties that make it the best choice for a variety of demanding applications. Sapphire maintains its strength even at high temperatures. It has good thermal properties, excellent electrical and dielectric properties and is resistant to chemical attack. These properties encourage the use of Sapphire in aggressive environments where reliability, optical transmission, and strength are required. welcome to consult high purity optical grade sapphire optics latest price.

Sapphire is extremely scratch and wears resistant; it is the second only to diamond in hardness. Combined with its excellent optical characteristics, sapphire is one of the best material for scanner windows, hazardous window applications and shields. Sapphire is also an ideal material for semiconductor, electrical and microwave applications because its high dielectric constant and low loss tangent

Sapphire is transparent from 200 nm up to 5500 nm. This wide transparency window makes sapphire one of the best materials for optical parts, especially for the micro-optics, in particular, IR and UV systems. And because of its stability, it is very resistant to optical damage such as solarization. Sapphire is also a kind of material very useful in wear related non-optical applications such as bearings and nozzles.

Sapphire is an ideal material for semiconductor processing, Furnace applications, and refining applications, because of its Thermal stability at very high temperatures (>1600C), far higher than any other optical material, and most non-optical materials.

Sapphire is also the ideal material for high purity chemical processing, semiconductor processing, and plasma systems. Sapphire has exceptional chemical stability. The only chemicals that etch sapphire are molten salts. All other solvents, bases, and acids do not affect sapphire, even at very high temperatures.

Note on Birefringence

The sapphire windows are provided with a random axis orientation. As sapphire is slightly birefringent, this may result in slight alteration of the polarization state of transmitted light.

Honour Optics grinds and polishes a variety of sapphire optical parts. Sapphire is the ideal optical material for applications where a broad spectrum of light transmission and high optical clarity is required. Sapphire's colorless characteristics make it a superior optical material compared to any standard glass or crystal. Sapphire has up to a 86% transmission and a transmission window from 180 nanometers in the UV to 5.5 microns in the IR.

Honour Optics has the technology to produce sapphire micro and miniature optics as small as less than 1mm up to sapphire macro optics of 200mm.

Tab. 1.Main properties of sapphire

Main properties of sapphire
Transmission Range 0.17 to 5.5μm
Refractive Index 1.75449 (no) 1.74663 (ne) at 1.06μm
Reflection Loss 14% at 1.06μm (2 surfaces)
Absorption Coefficient 0.3 x 10-3 cm-1 at 2.4μm
Restrahlen Peak 13.5μm
dndT 13.7 x 10-6 at 5.4μm
dn/dμ = 0 1.5μm
Density 3.98 g/cm3
Melting Point 2040°C
Thermal Conductivity 27.21 W/(m · K) at 300K
Thermal Expansion (parallel / perpendicular) 5.6 / 5.0 x 10-6/K
Hardness Knoop 2000 with the 2000g indenter
Specific Heat Capacity 419 J/(kg · K)
Dielectric Constant (parallel / perpendicular) 11.5 / 9.4 at 1MHz
Young's Modulus (E) 335 GPa
Shear Modulus (G) 148.1 GPa
Bulk Modulus (K) 240 GPa
Elastic Coefficients C11=496MPa C12=164MPa C13=115MPa
C33=498MPa C44=148MPa
Apparent Elastic Limit 275 MPa (40,000 psi)
Poisson Ratio 0.25

Tab. 2.Sapphire Refractive index

Wavelength, μm No Ne
0.193 1.92879 1.91743
0.213 1.88903 1.87839
0.222 1.8754 1.86504
0.226 1.87017 1.85991
0.244 1.85059 1.84075
0.248 1.84696 1.83719
0.257 1.83932 1.82972
0.266 1.83304 1.82358
0.280 1.82437 1.81509
0.308 1.81096 1.80198
0.325 1.80467 1.79582
0.337 1.80082 1.79206
0.351 1.79693 1.78825
0.355 1.79598 1.78732
0.442 1.78038 1.77206
0.458 1.77843 1.77015
0.488 1.7753 1.76711
0.515 1.77304 1.76486
0.532 1.7717 1.76355
0.590 1.76804 1.75996
0.633 1.7659 1.75787
0.670 1.76433 1.75632
0.694 1.76341 1.75542
0.755 1.76141 1.75346
0.780 1.76068 1.75274
0.800 1.76013 1.7522
0.820 1.75961 1.75168
0.980 1.75607 1.81974
1.064 1.75449 1.74663
1.320 1.75009 1.74227
1.550 1.74618 1.73838
2.010 1.73748 1.72973
2.249 1.73232 1.72432
2.703 1.719 1.711
2.941 1.712 1.704
3.333 1.701 1.693
3.704 1.687 1.679
4.000 1.674 1.666
4.348 1.658 1.65
4.762 1.636 1.628
5.000 1.623 1.615
5.263 1.607 1.599

Tab. 3.Specification of standard Sapphire optics

Specification Typical Level High precision
Sizes 1mm-200mm 1mm-200mm
Diameter tolerance +/-0.1mm +/-0.05mm
Thickness tolerance +/-0.1mm +/-0.05mm
Surface quality, scr/dig 60/40 20/10
Surface flatness(lambda) 2 L/4
Parallelism 3 arc min 30 arc sec
Clear Aperture 80% 90%
Chamfer 0.25mm at 45 deg 0.15mm at 45 deg
Coating Protective AR coating Protective AR coating

The external transmittance of sapphire is shown in the figure below:

the external transmittance of sapphire is shown in the figure below

External transmittance for 1-mm-thick uncoated sapphire

There are many different methods for growing sapphire. The most common are:
Kyropoulos (HEM) method
Stepanov (EFG) method
Czochralski method
Bagdasarov (Horizontally directed crystallization) method

custom efficient optical grade sapphire optics

All of these methods have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the requirements.
The best optical quality sapphire can be achieved via the Bagdasarov, Czochralski, and Kyropoulos methods. But in order to grow the high-quality material from these methods, the growth rates are very slow. These methods yield the best sapphire for critical optical and semiconductor applications.

Stepanov method allows for faster, near-net-shape growth such as plates, ribbon, and tubes, saving considerable post-growth processing. But the overall quality is not as good as Bagdasarov, Czochralski, and Kyropoulos methods. In many applications such as display covers, scanner windows and watch crystals, Stepanov is more than adequate, at a much lower cost.

Custom optical grade sapphire optics is one of the high-quality infrared materials with excellent transmitting property across visible and mid-infrared waveband. It is the main substrate material for GaN LED. Because of its high hardness, sapphire is also widely used as protective windows or viewports of watches and other precise mechanical devices. Honour Optics is the professional efficient optical grade special shape sapphire optics manufacturer, wholesale large size optical grade sapphire optics, welcome to consult purchase high purity optical grade sapphire optics optimal price.

Sapphire windows are ideal for applications where high pressure, vacuum, or corrosive atmospheres are a consideration. The main application of optical sapphire is large aperture windows, viewports, illuminators for common-aperture optical systems what make sapphire the top actual material due to its optical and mechanical properties. Sapphire products are also used as light guides, prism and lenses, especially sapphire optical high-temperature substrates, exact mechanics details, bulbs of high-pressure lamps and so on.

Our optical products have aroused customers interest of especially large-sized optics from sapphire with an antireflection coating, namely: AR coated sapphire domes and AR broadband coated sapphire protective plates with composite geometrical shape profile.

Some of Sapphire Products we provide:

Sapphire windows — for scanner windows, high-pressure systems, high vacuum systems, infrared surveillance systems & plasma systems
Sapphire shields — furnace & plasma systems
Sapphire sheet & flat stock — for display windows, cell phone windows, PDA windows & watch crystals (dial covers)
Sapphire wafers — for semiconductor & LED fabrication
Sapphire safety & blast shields — for explosive, military & hostile environments
Sapphire tubes — for plasma, high-pressure, high-purity & semiconductor applications
Sapphire microtubes — for medical & fiber optic applications
Sapphire domes — for high-pressure systems & missile nose domes
Sapphire rods & pins — for fiber optics, bio-engineering, dental & medical bone implants
Sapphire crucibles — for thermal analysis, foundry & casting
Sapphire insulators — for high power RF & microwave applications
Sapphire wear parts — for rods, bearings, blocks & friction plates in dynamic systems where physical & positional integrity must be maintained over time. welcome to consult high purity optical grade sapphire optics latest price.

Honour Optics is the professional manufacturer of Sapphire optics with ROHS environmental protection requirements. Honour Optics could provide Sapphire optics with different shapes, such as rod, square, step, wedge, prism, spherical, cylindrical and so on.
Our technicians are able to deliver excellent accuracy exactly customers ask for, no matter the finished products are used through infrared wavelength or within UV range.