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YAG Laser Crystal

Honour Optics grows wholesale YAG laser crystal using the Czochralski technique, and we can provide Nd, Er, Cr, Tm, Yb, Ho, and high gain YAG laser crystals. YAG (Yttrium aluminum garnet or Y3Al5O12), like garnet and sapphire, has no uses as a laser medium when pure. However, after being doped with an appropriate ion, custom high purity YAG laser crystal is commonly used as a host material in various solid-state lasers. Rare earth elements such as Nd (neodymium) and Er (erbium) can be doped into YAG as active laser ions, yielding Nd: YAG and Er: YAG lasers, respectively.


1.High Gain
2.Low threshold
3.High efficiency
4.Low loss at 1.06um
5.Good thermal conductivity and thermal shock characteristics
6.Mechanical strength
7.High optical quality
8.Material characteristics allow for various modes of operation (CW, pulsed, Q-switched, mode-locked and cavity dumped.)

Undoped YAG Crystal is an excellent material for UV-IR optical windows, particularly for high temperature and high energy density applications. The mechanical and chemical stability is comparable to sapphire crystal, but high precision large size YAG laser crystal is unique with non-birefringence and available with higher optical homogeneity and surface quality.

Nd: YAG crystal was invented in the 1960s, Nd: YAG has been and continues to be the most widely used laser crystal for solid-state crystal material. Its laser parameters are a good compromise between the strengths and weaknesses of its competition. Nd: high gain YAG laser crystal is used in all types of solid-state lasers systems-frequency-doubled continuous wave, high-energy Q-switched, and so forth.

Cr: YAG crystal is an excellent crystal for passively Q-switching diode pumped or lamp-pumped Nd: YAG, Nd: YLF, Nd: YVO4 or other Nd and Yb doped lasers at a wavelength from 0.8 to 1.2 µm.

Yb: YAG crystal has a much larger absorption bandwidth to reduce thermal management requirements for diode lasers, a longer upper-laser level lifetime, three to four times lower thermal loading per unit pump power. custom high purity YAG laser crystal at 1030nm is a good substitute for an Nd: YAG crystal at 1064nm and its second harmonic at 515nm may replace Ar-ion laser, which emits at 514nm

Er: high quality Chinese YAG laser crystal is an excellent laser crystal which lases at 2940 nm. It has wide applications in medical applications.

Nd: YAG as a host medium particularly for high power lasers and Q switched lenses emitting at 1064nm. However other transitions near 940, 1120, 1320, and 1440 nm are also used.

Nd3+: YAG is a four-level gain medium (except 946nm), offering substantial laser gain even for moderate excitation levels and pump intensities. The gain bandwidth is relatively small, but this allows for a high gain efficiency and thus low threshold pump power.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Chemical Formula Nd: Y3A15O12
Crystal Structure Cubic Garnet
Lattice Constants 12.01Å
Concentration ~ 1.2 x 1020 cm-3
Melting Point 1970°C (2240K)
Density 4.56 g/cm3
Mohs Hardness 8.5
Refractive Index 1.82
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 7.8 x 10-6 /K [111], 0 - 250 °C
Thermal Conductivity 14 W/m /K @20 °C, 10.5 W /m /K @100 °C.

The most common Nd: YAG emission wavelength is 1064 nm. Starting with that wavelength, outputs at 532, 355 and 266 nm can be generated by frequency doubling, frequency tripling, and frequency quadrupling, respectively. Other emission lines are at 946, 1123, 1319, 1338, 1415 and 1444 nm.

Nd: YAG is usually used in the monocrystalline form, fabricated with the Czochralski growth method, but there is also ceramic (polycrystalline) high precision large size YAG laser crystal available in high quality and in large sizes. For both monocrystalline and ceramic Nd: YAG, absorption, and scattering losses within the length of a laser crystal are normally negligible, even for relatively long crystals.

Physical and Optical properties

Lasing Wavelength 1064 nm
Stimulated Emission Cross Section 2.8x10-19 cm-2
Relaxation Time of Terminal Lasing Level 30 ns
Radiative Lifetime 550 ms
Spontaneous Fluorescence 230 ms
Loss Coefficient 0.003 cm-1 @ 1064 nm
Effective Emission Cross Section 2.8 x 10-19 cm2
Pump Wavelength 807.5 nm
The absorption band at the pump wavelength 1 nm
Linewidth 0.6 nm
Polarized Emission Unpolarized
Thermal Birefringence High

The Typical Nd (neodymium) doping level is 1 at. %. Nd: YAG rods at this dopant level are an excellent choice for a pulse and multimode CW laser systems to provide high output power coupled with balanced pumping uniformity and excellent beam quality High doping concentrations can be advantageous, because they reduce the pump absorption length, but too high concentrations lead to quenching of the upper-state lifetime. Also, the density of dissipated power can become too high in high-power lasers. Note that the neodymium doping density does not necessarily have to be the same in all parts; there are composite laser crystals with doped and undoped parts, or with parts having different doping densities.


Nd doping concentration from 0.1 to 2.5mol%
Diameter from 1mm to 50mm, length from 0.3mm to 220mm
Orientation Tolerance: 5 arc minutes
Diameter tolerance:+/-0.05mm
Length tolerance: +/-0.1mm
Dopant Concentration Tolerance------------------------0.1%
Parallelism --------------------------------------------------<10 arc seconds
Perpendicularity -------------------------------------------<5 arc minutes
Chamfer-----------------------------------------------------0.1mm @45°
Clear Aperture---------------------------------------------95%
Surface Quality--------------------------------------------10/5
Surface Flatness-------------------------------------------λ/10 @ 633nm
Wavefront Distortion-------------------------------------<λ/10@633nm

High quality Chinese YAG laser crystals are the most widely used gain medium which can be used in CW, pulse and some other solid-state lasers. It has many working patterns like multiplier, mode-locked, high-energy Q, cavity resonant and others.


Nd: YAG can produce blue laser with the frequency-doubling of 946nm
Nd: YAG can be operated in a very high power laser up to kw level
Nd: YAG can be Q-switched with Cr4+YAG directly
Due to the cubic symmetry and high quality, Nd: YAG is easy to operate with TEM00 mode

Honour Optics uses the Czochralski method to grow wholesale YAG laser crystal, and we can provide Nd, Er, Cr, Tm, Yb, Ho, and no doped YAG crystals.

Standard Nd: YAG rods ready to ship within 4 weeks:

Doping Dimension Coating
1% f3X50mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f4X40mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f6X60mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f6X80mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f6X100mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f6X120mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f8X120mm AR/AR@1064nm
1% f8X135mm AR/AR@1064nm